What programming languages ​​are there and why are they needed

You’ve probably heard how IT people talk about incomprehensible programming languages: “I studied in C plus plus, but switched to Ruby on rails” or “This can be done in Python, but also in Es-ku-el ” not difficult”.

Java: Today’s Programming Language Volume II

Preface This book is a second in programming, using the Object Oriented paradigm. It provides an in depth and extensive coverage in programming techniques to a variety of problems. The material is more detailed than the previous course, and is supported with larger programs. Concepts Covered • Program Design Principles – Cohesion & Coupling • Inheritance & Polymorphism • Exception and Exception Handling • Files and Streams • Elementary Data Structure • Graphical User Interface Pre-requisite • Knowledge of constructing a class • Understand data types • Knowledge of arithmetic, relational and logical expressions • Knowledge of program control – sequence, selection, and iteration

So that such conversations do not seem like a cipher, in the second issue of Digital Grocery we will talk about popular programming languages: why they are needed, what are their pros and cons, and how difficult it is to learn them.

Java

In a nutshell

A very complex language in which to write code for rovers, smartphones and bank servers. The language is based on the OOP (object-oriented programming) paradigm.

Object Oriented Programming

the concept in which the programmer defines not only the data, but also the functions that are applied to them. This makes it easier to create relationships between objects in your code. OOP is a complex but very important principle in modern programming. It reduces errors, simplifies programs, and allows code to be “reused”.

What is it used for

Included in the top 5 most popular programming languages. The main development language for mobile devices on Android. It is actively used in scientific projects and in the creation of high-load systems, government sites. Less popular in other areas, however, almost everyone writes in Java: from websites to applications for the computer.

In X5, GK is written in this language – the system on which most of the offline checkouts in our stores now operate, and this is more than 55 thousand installations. And also a new digital product “Feedback” is being created, which will allow you to quickly respond to customer requests (reviews, complaints, information requests, recommendations, gratitude) and, thus, will improve the quality of customer service at the Pyaterochka retail chain.

When and by whom invented

It was created in the 1990s by the American company Sun Microsystems based on the C ++ language. The engineers wanted an easier-to-use language that was friendly to novice programmers. A cup of coffee was chosen as a logo for it (there is nowhere in development without coffee).

Is it hard to learn… ♨ ♨ ♨ ♨

It’s difficult to learn, but it’s possible even in X5 – a school of technical specialists has been operating on the basis of the Digital Academy for a year. One of the tracks at the school is devoted to Java development, its graduates receive the level of Junior specialists and the opportunity to move to work in the X5 product teams.

pros

  • Full support for OOP principles.
  • Flexibility and Versatility – Java runs on any platform.
  • Small gadgets (applets) you can use

inside the code.

  • Support for TDD (Test Driven Development).
  • Great for remote and distributed work.

Minuses

  • There is no convenient development environment.
  • Partially paid to use.
  • Poor performance.
  • Complex and multi-layered code.

JavaScript

In a nutshell

The main development language for the web. It brings the design of websites and web applications to life. Simple and friendly to the programmer, it is constantly changing and requires constant learning about “fashion”. Lots of frameworks for every taste.

Framework

Is a set of programming tools, a code generation environment.

If you think of programming as building houses, then frameworks are materials and technologies. Someone builds brick houses, someone – houses from a bar, others – concrete houses. The framework is chosen based on the task and just a habit.

What is it used for

No modern computer or smartphone is complete without JavaScript (JS) support – all browsers work on its basis. All sites in the world (and there are tens of millions of them) are created using JS.

When and by whom invented

Created by Oracle in 1995, it has been constantly improving since then (changes in the language and development environment occur literally every day).

Is it hard to learn… ♨ ♨

pros

  • One of the most beginner friendly languages.
  • “Visual” language – the developer can visually see the result of his work.
  • A huge community creates plugins and development environment, helps to fix bugs.
  • Almost universal: you can write both the front-end and the back-end on it.

Minuses

  • The development environment is constantly changing, you need to monitor this on a daily basis.
  • Code security issues.

Python

In a nutshell

A popular language created by one person. Used in web programming, game development. Easy to learn – it is actively used in schools in computer science lessons.

What is it used for

Easier to say where it is not used. With Django frameworks, Python is used to write web applications. On Selenium – they are testing, with the help of PyOpenGL they are engaged in 3D modeling. It is also used for writing scripts, programming microcontrollers, and using it in science and work with big data.

A lot of IT solutions have been written in X5 in Python, for example, on the new internal corporate portal X5, written in this language.

When and by whom invented

Python was created by Dutch developer Guido Van Rossum in 1991 (programmers call it the “Generous Dictator for Life”)

Is it hard to learn… ♨

Our staff can learn Python development at X5 Digital Academy, where a technical school has been running for a year. Graduates receive a Junior Specialist level and the opportunity to move to work in X5 product teams.

Open source

a culture of collaborative application development. In open source, the developer opens their code for free changes by the community. Other programmers use it in their solutions, help improve, fix bugs.

pros

  • A friendly and even nice language with its own philosophy of beauty of the code.
  • Huge support for the open source community.
  • Lots of free tools and frameworks to work on anything.

Minuses

  • Low speed of work.
  • Problems with reusing code in different applications.

Ruby

In a nutshell

The language with the popular Ruby on Rails framework is one of the most popular in the world. It 100% supports the concept of OOP, the language is created and developed open source. It is actively used by leading companies: from Airbnb to Twitter.

What is it used for

For web development, flexible server systems, Mac and Linux programming. Ruby on Rails is the most popular framework for building web applications.

Web application

Is a super site. It not only shows text and pictures, but also allows you to perform actions: write text, edit pictures, correspond with other people. Google Docs, Figma, and even Facebook are web applications.

When and by whom invented

The language was created by Japanese developer Yukihiro Matsumoto in the 1990s. Fans of the language believe that Ruby has a lot of Japanese approach to code beauty and functionality. By the way, Matsumoto loves Russia very much and comes to visit us every year.

Is it hard to learn… ♨ ♨ ♨

pros

  • Large and friendly community.
  • Lots of useful libraries.
  • There is a lot of information on the net.
  • High development speed.

Minuses

  • High threshold of entry – people come to Ruby after developing experience in other languages.
  • The language is slowly developing. Programmers have a popular meme: “Ruby is dead.”

C ++

In a nutshell

A powerful language for creating complex programs: drivers, operating systems, banking and government applications.

What is it used for

Here are just a few areas of use: microcontrollers, IoT, robots, desktop and mobile applications, web, games, modeling, forecasting, statistics processing systems and in neural networks. C ++ is a very versatile language.

Developers value the community of other programmers very much. After all, any mistake and problem is easier to solve based on the experience of other people. The more active developers there are, the faster you can ask and get an answer.

When and by whom invented

One of the oldest languages: it was created in the 80s, and its foundations were laid with the C language back in the 60s of the last century! Bell employee Björn Stroustrup is considered the father of modern language.

Is it hard to learn… ♨ ♨ ♨ ♨ ♨

pros

  • Universal: one program can be used on different platforms.
  • Very much in demand in the labor market.
  • Helps programmers lay the foundation for learning.

Minuses

  • It is difficult and time-consuming to write code.
  • It is very difficult to fix bugs in your code.
  • It is very difficult to learn the language.

Go

In a nutshell

The simplest and fastest language possible, cleansed of all unnecessary things. It was created by Google. Used on the web and cloud computing. Great for teaching programming.

What is it used for

Web applications and web servers, 3D modeling, big data programming and cloud computing. It is actively used to create bots (including Telegram). Go is loved and used in Yandex, Mail.ru, Google, Facebook, Dropbox.

When and by whom invented

It was created in 2007 by Google (but everyone can use it freely). The language designers wanted to combine the best of Java, Python and C ++.

Is it hard to learn… ♨ ♨

Programmers jealously look at what languages ​​are used in large and fashionable companies like Yandex, Apple, Google. If the giants rely on, for example, Go, then this is a 100% worthwhile language, the knowledge of which increases the employee’s value in the labor market.

pros

  • Very simple and lightweight.
  • Super-fast compared to other languages.
  • Many vacancies and high salaries.
  • Many built-in and external libraries.

Minuses

  • Windows poorly supported.
  • Very unusual for experienced programmers.
  • There are no code typing systems.

ABAP / 4

In a nutshell

A special language used to write programs for SAP software. It is used in very complex and highly specialized cases, for example, in enterprise management programs. Supported in X5.

What is it used for

SAP manufactures software for big business management, which is considered the benchmark and gold standard. This software is worth millions of dollars and is used in tens of thousands of companies around the world. Internal programs and scripts for SAP software are written in ABAP.

In programming languages, as in human languages, there is a syntax – the rules by which “words” are linked into “text.” Knowing the basics of programming, the developer quickly masters any syntax and settles on the language that he likes best.

When and by whom invented

Created at SAP in 1983. Currently, the 4th version of the language, ABAP / 4, is supported.

Is it hard to learn… ♨ ♨ ♨ ♨ ♨

pros

  • A narrow specialization allows developers to earn a lot.
  • Compatible with other languages, including Java.

Minuses

  • Complex and not very easy to develop.
  • Not too much in demand in the world.
  • Not used in trendy hipster companies.

SQL

In a nutshell

“Semi-language” used for database management and data analysis. The low entry threshold allows you to master it in just a few weeks.

What is it used for

For storing, retrieving and analyzing data. It is loved by accountants, marketers, managers – with its help they can work with databases themselves, almost not knowing how to program.

The favorite phrases of SQL marketers are “right join” and “left join”. These are commands that describe the selection of data from a table.

When and by whom invented

It was created in the early 70s at IBM. Since then, the language has been constantly developed and supplemented. In the 1990s, it found its way into the popular MySQL environment.

Is it hard to learn… ♨ ♨

pros

  • Can be learned quickly.
  • Clearly standardized: it helps avoid mistakes.
  • Declarativeness: the programmer says what needs to be done, and the machine itself decides how to achieve it.
  • The standard language for working with databases.

Minuses

  • Doesn’t fit well with today’s data.

Learn C Programming: A beginner’s guide to learning C programming the easy and disciplined way

C is a powerful general-purpose programming language that is excellent for beginners to learn. This book will introduce you to computer programming and software development using C. If you’re an experienced developer, this book will help you to become familiar with the C programming language.

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