Programmer – a specialist engaged in the direct development of software for various kinds of computing and operating systems.
In the early morning hours of May 1, 1964, Dartmouth College birthed fraternal twins: BASIC, the Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code programming language, and, simultaneously, the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS). It hadn’t been an easy birth, and the gestation period was likewise difficult. BASIC was primarily the idea of one man, mathematics professor John Kemeny, a brilliant Hungarian mathematician who had once been an assistant to Albert Einstein, while the DTSS satisfied the vision of another, mathematics and statistics professor Thomas Kurtz, who had brought a democratizing spirit to Dartmouth’s campus in the form of free computing for all.
Programming, as an occupation, can be the main professional activity of a specialist, or be used as an auxiliary activity for solving other professional problems, or be used in a non-professional sphere (as a tool for solving problems or for the sake of enjoying the programming process). The term “programmer” does not necessarily imply professional education or professional activity.
The profession of a programmer is becoming more and more in demand, and the number of people working in the field of programming is only increasing. This is not surprising, because the number of computers is also growing, new solutions are emerging, and the software is either outdated or not suitable for fundamentally new devices. An example is Microsoft’s two-screen Surface Neo device specifically designed for Windows 10X.
All software is created using programming languages and we have selected the most in-demand for 2021 for you.
TOP 5 most popular programming languages in 2019
Multiparadigm programming language. Supports object oriented, imperative, and functional styles. It is an implementation of the ECMAScript language (ECMA-262 standard).
It is used mainly in conjunction with html and css.
html – Hypertext Markup Language.
css is a formal language for describing the appearance of a document.
A strongly typed object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems (later acquired by Oracle). Development is carried out by a community organized through the Java Community Process, the language and the underlying technologies that implement it are distributed under the GPL license. Trademark rights reserved by Oracle Corporation.
Java applications are usually translated into special bytecode, so they can run on any computer architecture using the Java Virtual Machine. An example is the game Minecraft. But don’t think the language is good not only for writing games, but also for any other kind of software.
A high-level general-purpose programming language focused on improving developer productivity and code readability. The Python core syntax is minimalistic.
Python supports structured, object-oriented, functional, imperative, and aspect-oriented programming. The main architectural features are dynamic typing, automatic memory management, full introspection, an exception handling mechanism, support for multi-threaded computations, high-level data structures. The division of programs into modules is supported, which, in turn, can be combined into packages.
4.C # (C Sharp)
C# (pronounced si sharp) is an object-oriented programming language. Designed as an application development language for the Microsoft .NET Framework. It was subsequently standardized as ECMA-334 and ISO / IEC 23270.
C # belongs to a family of languages with a C-like syntax, of which its syntax is closest to C ++ and Java. The language is statically typed, supports polymorphism, operator overloading (including operators of explicit and implicit type casting), delegates, attributes, events, properties, generic types and methods, iterators, anonymous functions with closure support, LINQ, exceptions, comments in the format XML.
Having adopted a lot from its predecessors – C ++, Pascal, Modul, Smalltalk and, in particular, Java – C #, relying on the practice of their use, excludes some models that have established themselves as problematic in the development of software systems, for example, C # as opposed to C ++ does not support multiple inheritance of classes (meanwhile, multiple inheritance of interfaces is allowed).
More often the language is used to write games on the Unity engine, the best games on this engine are SUPERHOT, Pokemon GO, RUST, INSIDE, Kerbal Space Program, etc.
A general-purpose scripting language heavily used for developing web applications. Currently supported by the vast majority of hosting providers and is one of the leaders among the languages used to create dynamic websites.
Examples of using:
- work with HTTP authorization;
- work with cookies and sessions;
- work with local and remote files, sockets;
- processing files uploaded to the server;
- work with XForms.
Worthy of mention
A compiled, statically typed general-purpose programming language. Supports such programming paradigms as procedural programming, object-oriented programming, generic programming, provides modularity, separate compilation, exception handling, data abstraction, declaration of types (classes) of objects, virtual functions.
A declarative programming language used to create, modify, and manipulate data in a relational database managed by an associated database management system.
A simple programming language designed as an object-oriented programming language.
The Objective-C language is a superset of the C language, so the C code is completely understandable by the Objective-C compiler.
The Objective-C compiler is included with GCC and is available on most major platforms. The language is used primarily for Mac OS X (Cocoa) and GNUstep – implementations of the OpenStep object-oriented interface. Also the language is used for iOS (Cocoa Touch).
A new programming language for developing iOS and OS X applications that combines the best of C and Objective-C, but is free from the restrictions imposed for the sake of compatibility with C. Swift uses secure programming patterns and adds modern features that turn application creation into simpler, more flexible and fun process.
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